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Much thanks to WB Herbert Hönigsmann, Past Master of Kosmos Lodge, Vienna, Austria; Grand Representative of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Washington Near the Grand Lodge of Austria for this submission
Chapter 1 The Early Period (1742-1793)
Only 25 years after the founding of the United Grand Lodge of London and Winchester, the Lodge “Aux Trois Canons” was consecrated in Vienna by a Lodge from the then German Breslau in mid-September 1742. It was, however, closed only six months later by order of Empress Maria Theresia I. Her husband Francis Stefan of Lorraine, (later the German Emperor Francis I), was unable to prevent the closing even though he himself was a Mason, having been initiated out of diplomatic reasons in 1731 in the Netherlands in a British Deputation Lodge – this even before the English royals!. This was a deliberate political act to ensure the spread of Freemasonry on the European continent at the highest possible level. However, he was never to be realised as a member of an Austrian Lodge (only his son Joseph II mentioned it in a letter to a German lodge). Although the papal excommunication in Austria had no effect, Maria Theresia particularly feared Masonry as a vehicle for foreign influence. The police raids, in which members of lodges were taken into custody, were due merely to a court intrigue inspired by jealousy, but nevertheless scared people off, both within the Austrian monarchy and outside. Despite this, in 1754 a recognized Lodge was formed by accredited diplomats in Vienna, the Hanoverian Deputation Lodge “Aux Trois Cœrs” (The three hearts) with several Brethren of the original Lodge “Aux Trois Canons” numbered within its ranks. In addition in 1770 there was the famous Lodge “The Three Eagles”, Lodge “To Hope”, as well as the well-known Lodge “To Holy Joseph” all consecrated in Vienna.
Freemasonry was in a phase of explosive growth at the time, recruiting members particularly among high ranking and aristocratic figures and artists. There were also well-documented efforts to persuade Maria Theresa’s successor, Joseph II, to join the organization. He originally was very receptive to Freemasonry, and very favourably inclined towards it.
Away from the capital and throughout the Habsburg Empire there were other Lodges as early as 1730 in the then Austrian Netherlands, Bohemia, Transylvania, Galicia, Hungary, Croatia, and in Lombardy. On today’s Austrian soil the Berlin based Grand Lodge formed the First Provincial Lodge of Austria in 1777 in Vienna followed by several lodges in Innsbruck, Graz, Linz, Klagenfurt, and Salzburg one year later.
Famous well beyond the country’s borders was the Viennese lodge “To True Harmony”, which existed from 1781 to 1785; developing under the Chair of Worshipful Master Ignatius von Born an excellent scientific academy and was also a very significant institution for all the other European countries where Freemasonry had meanwhile established itself. The works presented and publications on them were very intensive, scientific, and socially political in nature. Through them, and the members assisted the emperor’s intent to dispel prejudice, combat superstition, and peel away dogmatic views, and provide a scientific foundation for the Enlightenment. Many of the works opposed clerical arrogance and the parasitic monastic system.
On April 24, 1784 under Emperor Joseph II the first Grand National Lodge of Austria was constituted marking the liberation from submission to foreign obediences and an internal cleansing of harmful elements. 63 lodges with about 20,000 members were involved.
Our former brethren numbered amongst them representatives of secular and spiritual nobility, such as the composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn as well as many other artists and scientists, the very roots and noble spirits of their time. Representatives of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy met under a Masonic banner on an equal footing, which was absolutely unthinkable in the former secular world.
Sadly the Craft in that time also attracted charlatans, alchemists, and mystics to their ranks. This fact alone caused Josef II to reduce the number of consecrated Lodges on December 11, 1785 to two consolidated lodges. However, this was the start of Freemasonry’s decline. Finally in 1793 Emperor Franz II forced the last two Viennese lodges to extinguish their lights, not least due to strengthened relations with the Vatican and from fear of the intrusion French-inspired revolutionaries. On January 2, 1795 he finally released the so-called “Criminal Edict” that banned all secret societies. Please note that this edict was effective until 1918.
Chapter 2 From the 19th Century to World War I
In fact during the 19th century it was the national rather than the social revolution which stood in the foreground. Politicians like Lajos Kossuth and Giuseppe Garibaldi pitched themselves with the Habsburg independence movements founded in Hungary and Italy supported from a Masonic background.
It was only through the momentous defeat of the Austrians by the Prussian army at Königgrätz (Hradec Králové) in 1866 that the power of the central government in Vienna was so weakened that they had to agree to the “compromise” with Hungary one year later. The subsequent dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary shared only interests in foreign policy, the army and the finances, for the remaining legislation the two halves of the empire were completely autonomous, with even the transportation of goods within the Empire attracting a tax. The liberal Hungarian Associations Act enabled the establishment of lodges that finally formed the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Hungary. After 1850, several lodges were founded in Hungary. These were strongly influenced by the French Grand Orient. Austrian Freemasons moved to Hungary, where they set up the so-called border lodges. Even so, there was continuing and sharp public debate about Freemasonry in Austria itself. The liberal-minded, a not insignificant public fraction, saw the ideas of Freemasonry as an opportunity to solve the growing problem of nationality. In 1869 the non-political association “Humanitas” was founded in Vienna. In 1871 the first Austrian “Border Lodge”, Lodge “Humanitas” arose in Hungary. Three years later followed the Lodge “Future”, then the “Socrates” and “Pioneer” just to name a few. My own lodge Kosmos Lodge was established in 1907. In Vienna all of these lodges met as “non-political or humanitarian organizations”. To complete Ritual work, the Brethren travelled several times a year across the nearby border to Pressburg/Pozsony now Bratislava, Sopron/Ödenburg, and Neudörfl/Lajtaszentmiklós.
Chapter 3 Between the Wars
The collapse of the Habsburg Empire after World War I in 1918 made possible the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Vienna, founded by 14 former border lodges. From 1919 up to 1938 Grand Master Richard Schlesinger was ruling. He guaranteed a pacifistic, humanistic, internationalist, and, in contrast to the German Grand Lodges, pro-European spirit.
During his office, there was vigorous activity in the fields of charity, popular education and social welfare. However, the Freemason also tried to use the international networks to bring about reconciliation with the victors, and Schlesinger also worked towards domestic reconciliation between political opponents. Particularly well-known is the peace movement that emerged at the time, centered on our Nobel Prize for Peace recipient Br. Alfred Hermann Fried. The European political heritage of Br. Fried was continued by Br. Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, who’s PanEuropean Union was supported until 1938 by the Grand Lodge of Vienna.
At its peak there were 2,000 members in 24 lodges working together with community institutions such as the “Austrian Peace Society”, the “League for Human Rights”, and the “Ethical Community”. From 1919 to 1938, the “Viennese Freemasons Newspaper” was even sold to the public or could be easily found in some coffee houses.
In 1930 the Grand Lodge of Vienna received recognition by the United Grand Lodge of England, but previously the German Grand Lodges had withdrawn their recognition because they disliked the Jewish and Francophile influences, and because the Viennese had significantly supported the establishment of the Scottish Rite in Berlin as well as the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Germany in Hamburg, which too were aligned with a more pro-European feeling. Somewhat bizarre was that Austrians established the lodge “Lux Orientis“ in Shanghai, China under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Vienna. This lodge existed until 1947.
Under pressure from the autocratic rule by the newly founded “Austrian Cooperate State”, following in 1933 the Lodges lost many of their members until by mid-1937 their exact number was only 1,167, yet they still admitted a few new ones. Police spies watched closely the Craft; public officials were forced to resign. However, the Grand Lodge of Vienna itself was neither forbidden nor hunted.
As part of the “Anschluss” to Nazi-Germany in March 1938 the remaining Lodges were finally extinguished. Their meeting house at Dorotheergasse 12 was partially plundered and Grand Master Schlesinger was imprisoned. He died soon afterwards. Some 100 Brethren were murdered in the Nazi concentration camps. Some 600 took refuge in States who granted asylum. The Deputy Grand Master Altmann from my Lodge immigrated to the United States where he established our daughter lodge, Humanitas.
Chapter 4 After World War II until now
At the first meeting after the end of the World War II in Vienna in 1945 exactly 48 Brethren (out of the more than 2,000 former members) came together to breathe new life into the Craft. This figure shows how fundamental was the break in tradition. The main objective of the meeting was consolidation, with support from US General Mark Clark who was Supreme Commander of American forces in Austria and a member of the Scottish Rite 32nd Degree.
The first ritual meeting was held on October 20, 1945 in Klagenfurt, Carinthia with the help of British Army members. In the same year in Vienna Karl Doppler, also Deputy Grand Master before 1938 became the new Austrian Grand Master and convened an assembly of former lodge members. As such Austrian Freemasonry was the first victim of Nazi terror but also the first organisation that resurrected. Doppler and his successor Scheichlbauer did outstanding work in re-establishing Freemasonry and founding the Grand Lodge of Austria. Support of Jewish brethren in exile was particularly important for renewing recognition by the United Grand Lodge of England in 1952. The English and their obediences in amity laid great value on the Austrians clearly recognizing the principles of the ancient and pure Freemasonry, as defined in the “Aims and Relationships of the Craft” in 1938.
In May 1969 the English-speaking Sarastro Lodge and in 1980 in the French-speaking Aux Trois Canons Lodge were founded.
HGM Kurt Baresch was in negotiation for 15 years with the Austrian Cardinal König over normalizing relationships with the Roman Catholic Church, which resulted in a modification of the Code of Canon Law on 26 November 1983, ending the excommunication which had been automatic until then.
Chapter 5 Austrian Freemasonry of Today
The 274 years of Freemasonry in Austria and its changing fate have left their mark on the quality of our organization. Public education in the tradition of Enlightenment, attention to social policy, and demanding philosophical and esoteric work are the characteristics of the debates through essays which are important in Austria. Our independent and lay view of the ritual gives us a special position for spreading FM in regions where a tight Christian straitjacket would be seen as an obstacle.
Besides the strict structures of our organisation and constitution, this way of working and specifically the essays (“Baustück” which means “building blocks“) is an important element of the Austrian style. Equally important are the private (but not secret) nature of the organization and the self-effacing public image, which are part of the appropriate restraint and low-key approach to the public. In this way, we arouse positive interest by making ourselves special. Our admission procedure is particularly stringent and high-quality, with charity an important but not decisive characteristic, in contrast to PR work which is often misunderstood elsewhere. We still have a continuous development, today there are 79 Lodges in Austria with a total of 3,700 members. They are based in all regional capitals and even in smaller towns. As a special feature Austrian Lodges are not numbered.
Particularly notable is Austria’s work in restoring or introducing Freemasonry to Eastern Europe. This has led to Austria being frequently described as a model of correct Masonic “missionary work”, and we are constantly being called on for this, including supporting quality assurance in existing systems. With Austrian involvement between 1997 and 2009 the Grand Lodges of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Ukraine, and Slovakia were established. This is not only true for blue Masonry but also for the higher degrees.
Romania remains a mystery for most US citizens. Americans I speak to often only recognize it for romantic connections to Transylvania and the mistaken association to the Gypsies referred to as Romanis. Beyond these stories lays a country that has been a battleground between western and eastern empires throughout ancient history and in it’s more recent era was formed by a global community of intellectuals who had to sacrifice their lives for their civil rights and equal freedoms. The modern day country of Romania is only the current state of boundaries and people who’ve undergone many changes in governance and cultural revolution. Along with these changes Freemasons have ebbed and flowed through the fabric of its history. The list of famous Romanian Freemasons may not be household names here in the US, however a brief survey reveals a consistent theme of writers, philosophers, scientists, and politicians who were the most respected men of their time.
Records support that it was 1734 when Romania founded its first two Masonic lodges, which was only 17 years after the founding of the Grand Lodge of England. The two lodges, Loggia di Galazzi and Iaşi, were consecrated at a time when the country was still divided into the two Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The first Worshipful Master of Iaşi was the then-current reigning Lord of Moldova, Constantin Mavrocordat. For several decades Lords of the principalities would act as Masters or Brethren in the growing number of lodges. Many foreign dignitaries brought with them Masonry from surrounding territories and were among some of the most prominent members of the court until in 1777 the Turkish leadership, critical of Masonic egalitarian ideals, ordered the dethroning and murder of the then Moldovan Lord Grigore Ghica III. This marked the beginning of a new era in Romania where Freemasons were repressed, arrested, and convicted of crimes against the state. Many Masons were exiled or even executed in this period, however the Fraternity continued to inspire higher thoughts and greater deeds such as the efforts of Horea and Cloşca, who led the uprising that resulted in the abolition of serfdom in 1785 and was one of many events happening throughout Europe’s enlightenment preceding The French Revolution.
Even as Romania emerged from this dark period of Freemasonry in the early 1900’s, it can be hard to decipher the shadow of rumor from the light of truth. It’s stated that on the morning of the Paris Peace Conference in 1918, that sanctioned the internationally recognized union of Transylvania and Romania, that five members of the Romanian delegation became Freemasons or more ambiguously “received light” according to the minutes of the lodge workshop. This event is even more notable in consideration that Freemasonry had been suspended in neighboring countries including Hungary, its closest neighbor. Despite a revival of the brotherhood the most destructive event was yet to come when the Soviets imposed a communist regime in the country that outlawed Masonry and in 16 years from 1948 to 1964 shrunk the number of living identifiable Masons in the country from 1500 to a few hundred. The fraternity remained scattered and weakened until in 1990 The Grand Orient of Italy and The Grand Lodge of California with the assistance of the Grand Lodges of France and Austria reconstituted the first Romanian lodge leading to re-consecration of the Supreme Council of Romania, Portugal, and Poland in 1993. As a testament to the importance that Freemasons have had on the history of Romania, the then President of Romania, Ion Iliescu, made a speech in 2003 that declared once and for all the Fraternity’s lasting influence.
“…In particular, Masonry has contributed to the establishment of modern Romania and its unitary statehood. Yet, these facts were kept hidden in Romania for the last 50 years… In the context of globalization today, the future of a modern and civilized nation cannot be viewed outside dialogue. We need as many bridges as possible to facilitate cultural exchange. Freemasonry is part of this process. It is a communicating vessel for all the forces willing to work for the welfare of the Romanian nation, its development, and full assertion.” – Ion Iliescu
In today’s Romanian Fraternity there are similar requirements of candidates to those used here; Men age 21 and older (or 18 years if children of Masons) of any ethnic and religious background of good reputation, a belief in the immortality of the soul and in Divinity, generically called the Great Architect of the Universe, and the choice to join being of your own free will and accord. In contrast to the US, but aligned with many European lodges, is the request for a professional resume upon submission of an application. From the collected experiences of this author throughout European countries I’ve been convinced that this request is made to maintain the emphasis to bring men into the Fraternity who value education and action to support their promise to seek light and provide the duties of their kind offices to all.
Currently there are seven Grand Lodges operating in Romania, including a Grand Lodge for female Freemasons. To best understand which lodges we are in current Amity with please contact your Grand Lodge who can give the proper and recognized process for travel and Masonic correspondence.
WB:. Seann Maria, St. John’s Lodge #9
Czechia or the Czech Republic, as it is more commonly known in the United States, is a country many times divided. Like so many countries in this part of Europe it has been a part of an Empire and has had many names. The Celts were once its early settlers, later to be outnumbered by Germanic tribes and Slavs. Each one of these cultures deserves its own research to give it proper appreciation, however for the purpose of this article we will concentrate on the effect the country’s many cultures have had on Freemasonry.
In the 15th century religious division around the Catholic Church and rise of Protestantism divided the people of the area called Bohemia that would later become the largest portion of the country of Czechia. Over the next two centuries Bohemia’s ruling government, The
Austrian Empire, built an intolerance for the craft; while Brethren attuned to Protestant beliefs fled to more sympathetic lands such as England, Hungary, Poland, and the Netherlands.
The first documented freemason from Bohemia was Philip Count Kinsky who was raised in November 1731 while staying in England. He spent 12 years in London as Imperial Ambassador and upon his return became the highest Chancellor of Bohemia in Prague. Within a decade the first lodges would appear in record books coinciding with the influx of French, English, Scottish, Irish, Dutch and German military officers. It was also at this time that the Queen of the Hapsburg Empire, Maria-Theresa, and her long and shaky history with Freemasonry would begin to affect Bohemian Masons. Any studies into her life will eventually note that she made several rules of law to suppress Freemasonry yet eventually seemed to embrace Freemasons as her closest advisors and eventually her husband Francis I became both a Freemason and the Holy Roman Emperor. At a later date her son and co-regent Joseph II would become one of the largest supporters of the fraternity within Austria. This later acceptance of Freemasonry in her Empire extended into Prague where funds came from the Queen’s donations to the Masonic order building an orphanage within the city.
Prague began to flourish with Masons leading important institutions like the National Museum, the Academy of Sciences, and the National Gallery. In the late 18th century, the great composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart frequented Prague seemingly more than any other city away from Vienna and seemed to keep company exclusively with fellow Freemasons. Eventually the Craft began to relax its means of selection and the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bohemia was split into six Provincial Grand Lodges of Austria, Bohemia, Galicia, Austrian Lombardy, Siebenbürgen (Transylvania), and Hungary. The Grand Lodge of Austria was set up as the central Grand Lodge and ordered limits on the number of lodges within each Provincial Grand Lodge while simultaneously making them state protected. This attempt to protect Masonry failed to last and soon lodges closed; at first voluntarily closed under political pressure from the succeeding monarchs and later were outlawed as anti-government secret societies. It wouldn’t be until the late 19th century that Bohemian lodges began to appear in neighboring regions of Slovakia and Hungary.
Lodges in Bohemia would work strictly under their number within the jurisdiction of a foreign Grand Lodge for decades. This created chaos in the form of different rituals in different languages and amounted to tension between the lodges. World War I changed the region forever and as Czechoslovakia was formed in 1918 the diversity of Masons grew wider with new groups of Germans, Slovaks, Poles, Hungarians, Ruthenes, Jews and Gypsies, each with their own cultures and own languages. Throughout the beginning of the 20th century, there were many Masons who stepped forward to help the cause of founding native jurisdictions in the country. Among them was the famous painter Bro. Alphonse Mucha who displayed symbolism of the craft in some of his best works of art. By 1923 there were two primary Grand Lodges that claimed to be sovereign bodies of Czechoslovakia, The Grand Lodge, or more specifically “Lessing zu den drei Ringen“ (Lessing at the Three Rings), and The Grand Lodge of Czechoslovakia. The former of these names derives from the influence that the German writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and his famous work, The Parable of the Three Rings, had over these previously German lodges.
As the Nazi’s invaded in 1938, the Fraternity would again be scattered into exile and hiding during the siege of Europe in World War II. The Grand Lodge of Czechoslovakia would preside over scattered lodges in its jurisdiction around the world for decades. When finally Masons returned to the country en masse, they again proved divided between two major Grand Lodges. Finally, in a ceremony at Prague’s Strahov Monastery, in 2008, members of the Czech Republic’s two senior Masonic organizations finally united, when the Grand Lodge of the Czech Republic incorporated the members of the Czech Grand Orient becoming the Grand Lodge of record that stands today.
“The two grand lodges were following different traditions – one was following the Anglo-Saxon or English tradition while the other was following the French, or continental, tradition. Central Europe is a specific case where both of these tendencies were strong. But the formal dispute, which was at the core of this division of Freemasonry, has nothing to do with the Czechs, the Poles, or the Hungarians. It was therefore, after a certain time, understood that the natural evolution of Freemasonry was to unite – which we did on Saturday, March 8(2008).”
Reflecting on this history can tell us what needs to be understood when considering the Masonry in Czechoslovakia. The Freemasons of this country have historically experienced so much adversity and diversity that a careful consideration of each Mason and each lodge is necessary when trying to understand the expected customs, language, and rituals they keep. Their amity with each other and with us is a product of unique observance of all these traditions they uphold. To best understand which lodges we are in a current relationship with, please contact your Grand Lodge who can give the proper and recognized process for travel and Masonic correspondence.
WB Seann Maria
St Johns Lodge No. 9
Click the link for a listen to a recent radio interview featuring Cameron Bailey (Deputy of the Grand Master in District No. 17) and Matthew Swena (Worshipful Master of Chehalis Lodge No. 28) conducted by Peter Abbarno on KELA AM.